Solutions for Photonics Integrated Circuits for Quantum
Discover the leading solutions for the fabrication of integrated quantum photonics.
Plasma-enhanced Deposition and Etching Solutions for Quantum
We offer three key applications for photonic integrated circuits for quantum:
- Atomic layer deposition of superconducting nitrides for SNSPDs
- High temperature, SiH4 and NH3-free PE (ICP) CVD of Si3N4 for low-loss waveguides
- Plasma etching for optical components (e.g. gratings, waveguides)
ALD of Superconducting NbN for Single Photon Detectors
Thin films of superconducting NbN deposited by plasma ALD using bias for applications as superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs)
- Thicknesses required: <30 nm
- ALD allows for deposition of superconducting thin films with thickness precision, high Tc, good thickness uniformity, and great control of stoichiometry
- Table bias enables stress control to achieve minimal room temperature resistivity
- Low room temperature resistivity correlates to higher Tc
- 12.9 K Tc measured at Oxford Instruments
- For ~30 nm NbN film deposited at 250°C
- Room temperature ρ = 139 µΩcm, Tc = 12.9 K
Silicon/SiNx Etch for Low-loss Optical Components
Cryogenic etch to overcome sidewall roughness issues in Bosch etch
We propose a range of cryogenic etch processes to fabricate optical components such as gratings, ring resonators, optical filters, delay lines and waveguides, made from Si/Si3N4. These are key building blocks of a Quantum Computer, enabling light coupling into the chip, photon manipulation and transport down to single photon detectors.
Our cryogenic etch processes are characterized by:
- Smooth sidewalls, leading to low optical signal loss
- Low etch rate, allowing for good etch depth accuracy & reproducibility
- High selectivity, limited by mask thickness
- Notch control
Bosh etched structures
SiNx cryo etch
Grating coupler on SOI
Cryo etched SOI waveguide
Flexible Solutions Tailored for Photonic Components
Bosch process targeting smooth sidewalls
|Minimal scallop size|
||> 3 μm/min|
||< 35 nm|
Cryo process targeting smooth sidewalls
||> 2 μm/min|
||> 65:1 Si:SiO<sub>2</sub>|
||< 5 nm|
Mixed gas process targeting shaped profile
||> 190 nm/min|
||< 5 nm|
||≈ 105 nm |
Wide Range of III-V Optical Components Processing
GaAs / AlGaAs Heterostructures
InP Ridge Waveguide
GaN Photonics Crystal
GaAs / AlGaAs Photonic Crystal
InP Photonic Crystal
InSb / InSbAs
PE/ICPCVD of Si3N4 for Low-loss Optical Components
Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) is a very promising candidate for low-loss optical components
One of the greatest challenges with Si3N4 deposition for applications in waveguides is the in-film hydrogen content, typically coming from the precursors and leading to optical losses.
Therefore, we've developed a high-temperature PECVD process which shows a low concentration of hydrogen and enables enhanced stress control as well as a higher deposition rate, These make high-temperature PECVD of Si3N4 particularly suited for the fabrication of low-loss optical components.
Other approaches include ICP CVD using SiCl4 or low-temperature ICP CVD followed by in-situ anneal at temperatures above 1000°C in our PlasmaPro 100 Nano system (maximum temperature: 1200°C).
- High temperature and NH3-free PECVD of Si3N4 (800°C) allowing for good control of the refractive index, stress and enhanced deposition rate
- SiH4-free ICP CVD of Si3N4 using a SiCl4 process
- Low-temperature ICP CVD of SiN
PECVD film stress control
High temp PECVD with low BHF etch rate
Systems for Superconducting Qubit & Quantum Circuit Applications
Enabling these solutions are the FlexAL and PlasmaPro 100 deposition and etch systems, capable of producing small coupons through to 200 mm wafers, clusterable to increase throughput and avoid vacuum breaks. Our PlasmaPro 100 platform enables high precision deposition and etching of a wide range of materials for quantum devices.
We offer key processing solutions for various device fabrication challenges for the various approaches in today’s quantum technology R&D and device development.
Oxford Instruments have a strong history in providing state of the art solutions in this rapidly developing applications are a key enabler of quantum technologies beyond device fabrication solutions.
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